Jumat, 05 Maret 2010

The power of the VOC (Kompeni Belanda/ Dutch Company) in Indonesia

In 1602 Dutch merchants established a trade association called Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC). In the Indonesian language, the association became known as the Dutch Company. Dutch Trade Board is basically aimed at making profit as much as possible and to strengthen its position in the face of his opponents such as Portuguese and Spanish. The formation of the government assisted the Dutch East India Company under Van Oldenbarneveldt. VOC privileged, so that became a sovereign entity. Privileges that include:

1. Monopoly rights to trade between South America to Africa
2. The right to maintain armed forces, war, establishing forts and conquer
3. The right to appoint the employees
4. The right to give the court
5. The right to print and circulate their own money

Instead VOC have obligations that must be met for the Dutch government, namely:
1. Responsible to the Staten General (Board Representative)
2. At the time of war to help the Dutch government with money and the army

In the beginning the relationship with the Company in Banten and although difficulties may be associated, but the prices of goods obtained very expensive. Therefore, in the year 1618 January Pieterzoon Coen with permission from Prince Jayakarta established a fort in the town of Jayakarta. When the dispute between Prince Jayakarta aided by the Sultan of Banten with Dutch people under the leadership of January Pieterzoon Coen, the Dutch people to burn the city Jayakarta.

However, in the year 1619, Jan Coen Pieterzoon new city founded in the city was burned by the name of the city of Batavia. Next Jan Pieterzoon Coen made the city of Batavia as a commercial center and the center of Dutch power in Indonesia. Of Batavia, the Dutch nation and expanding its attacks against the kingdoms of the region of Indonesia, which has not recognized Dutch control over its territory. Kingdoms like kingdom of Banten, Malacca, Makassar, Mataram, and so forth. In the face of the kingdoms in Indonesia, the Dutch launched a sheep race politics (Devide et impera). As a result, the Indonesian people hate the government and VOC control over Indonesian territory.

The influence of Portuguese culture in Indonesia Region

Age of Portuguese colonial rule that lasted from 1511 to 1641 in Indonesia to leave the marks on the culture of Indonesia. Relics of the Portuguese colonial era in the form of both spiritual and material culture, we can still see today.

The motto of the Portuguese exploration, which is trying to spread the Catholic religion in areas occupied or under their control. Franciscus Xavier, a missionary, has been spreading the Catholic religion in Ambon. Many of the people of Ambon akhisnya Catholic religion and visible from the names that mimic the names of the Portuguese as De Pereira, De Fretes, Lopies, De Quelju, Diaz and others.

Heritage objects of the Portuguese and then considered sacred by nations such as Indonesia guns known as the Setomi Nyai in Solo, the robust in Jakarta, Ki Amok in Banten, and so on. The sturdy special cannon located in Jakarta is considered by people as an intermediary tool to gain supernatural powers of children.

Other influences such as the Portuguese language that helped enrich the number of words in the Indonesian language, such as the San Domingo (God is sacred), churches, butter, mona (from the word madona), Sinyo (from the Signer) and so on. Art music was favored by the people of Indonesia is the art of music keroncong art originating from Portuguese music. Portuguese-speaking keroncong ever known in Indonesia is keroncong Morisco.

The Portuguese power in Indonesia

After the ship landed in India, the Portuguese managed to seize several important ports on the coast of India and made the city of Goa is located on the coast of India as a center of power. To be able to dominate and monopolize the trade in South Asia of the Portuguese take steps as follows:

1. Extending the power to the west to destroy the Turkish fleet, so the Portuguese can supervise trade and shipping in the sea between Asia and Europe. Even the Portuguese could force traders to sail from port trade Goa (India) to South Africa and then to the port of Lisbon, the European center of trade and the Portuguese capital.

2. Extending the power to the east with the control of Malacca, which can stop and control of direct trading activities conducted by Chinese merchants, India and Indonesia.

In 1511, Malacca been won by the Portuguese under the leadership of Alfonso d `Albuquerque. Since the incident, the power of the kingdom of Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese. Thus, the Portuguese can be a direct trade with the regions in Indonesia, such as Ternate, Ambon, Banda, and Timor. In Ternate the Portuguese tried to capture the trade of cloves and nutmeg. But in the attempt, the Portuguese had done something that hurts the feelings of Muslims, where the Portuguese have violated the covenant of the Sultan of Ternate.

The Portuguese tried to instill power in the Moluccas. This is done in order to monopolize the spice trade. However, the actions of the Portuguese increasingly arbitrary and cruel act against the people can cause the occurrence of conflict between the people of Maluku to the Portuguese. This conflict culminated after the murder of the Portuguese Empire Sultan Hairun of Ternate. People Ternate up arms under the leadership of his son, who called Baab Ullah and finally in 1575 the Portuguese were expelled from the Moluccas.

Kamis, 04 Maret 2010

The arrival of English in Indonesia

Since the 17th century, British merchants had traded up in India. In East India, British traders set their trading partnerships, the East India Company (EIC) in years of 1600, with regional operations include India. EIC is the power center in Calcutta (India), and from this city of England expanded into Southeast Asia region. In the 18th century British traders also had a lot of trade in Indonesia, so that both the rival East India Company (Dutch). In fact, since the Netherlands became allies of France, England was always threatening the Dutch position in Indonesia.

Under the Governor General Lord Minto is located in Calcutta (India) was formed British expedition to seize areas of Dutch rule in Indonesia. In 1811, Thomas Stamford Raffles, has captured the Dutch empire in Indonesia. Raffles who was appointed as British leader on the territory of Indonesia provides the opportunity for residents of Indonesia to implement free trade.

However, British power remained oppressive Indonesian nation. Relations between Indonesia and Europe is almost entirely controlled by the British. But according to the London agreement in 1815, England are required to return the territory of Indonesia to the Netherlands. And in 1816 England was his duty.

The arrival of the Dutch in Indonesia

The Portuguese controlled trade shipping line between the East Indies (East Indonesia / Moluccas) to Europe for nearly a century. Spice trade made by the Portuguese is a very big influence on the Dutch. Moreover after the Dutch traders no longer allowed to conduct trade activities in the airport of Lisbon (Lisbon, Portugal).

So the Dutch traders found it difficult to obtain spices. Therefore, the Dutch merchants tried myself to seek and find the source of spices in the East. The Dutch started the voyage, in the year 1596 under the command of Cornelis de Houtman, a Dutch traders arrived in Indonesia in the town of Banten. From the airport Banten Dutch sailors continued his voyage to the east and they returned with spices in a considerable amount.

Since his success, the Dutch traders increasingly crowded come to Indonesia. This situation has led to competition among timublnya Dutch merchants themselves. To overcome the competition was the Dutch government to form joint enterprises or trade named Vereegnide Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC) is the communion of Commerce East Indies. East India Company was founded in 1602 is also more often referred to by the Indonesian people called "Kompeni Belanda".

VOC is a trade body of the Dutch traders who have the privileges of the Dutch royal government. Privileges held by the Company to encourage the more rapid trade conducted by the VOC. So that the position of the Portuguese traders increasingly desperate and eventually disappear from monopoly activities spice trade.

Rabu, 03 Maret 2010

Treaty of Saragossa

1. Earth is divided into two effects, namely the influence of the Spanish and Portuguese
2. Spanish Territory stretches from Mexico circumstances blood islands west to the Philippines and the Portuguese territory stretching from the eastern Brazilian blood circumstances to the Maluku islands

The Portuguese exploration

After Thordesillas Treaty in 1942, Portuguese sailors under the command of Bartholomeus Diaz tried to find a solution to find the middle east (central spices). But Bartholomeus Diaz cruise only until the end of South Africa in 1946. This is due to the large Indian Ocean surf (Samudera Indonesia), so that the ships that carried by Bartholomeus Diaz does not come through. By Bartholomeus Diaz, cape was named Cape of Good Hope.

Bartholomeus Diaz failure to find the source of spices in the middle east does not make a determination subsided Portuguese king, even more so after hearing the news of success Columbus discovered the American continent. So in 1498, the king of Portugal sent expeditions under the leadership of Vasco da Gama. The expedition landed at Calcutta (India) in 1498. In India the Portuguese sailors get spices from the merchant to be brought to the country. With this reality as the Portuguese do not feel satisfied and want to get and find their own center's spices.

So in 1511, from India of the Portuguese sent expedition under the leadership of Alfonso d'Albuquerque, keeping track of Islamic traders. In the year 1511 was also the Portuguese captured Malacca, Islamic trade center in Southeast Asia. From Malacca the Portuguese had continued his voyage to the east in order to get himself the center of spices in the Moluccas islands. Finally the Portuguese arrived in Ternate (Maluku) in 1512.

When the Portuguese arrived in Ternate, Ternate was the kingdom against kingdom Tidore. The arrival of the Portuguese in Ternate get a good reception from the king of Ternate. This was done with the aim that the Portuguese can be used as allies in the face of it Tidore Kingdom assisted by the Spanish. Therefore, in addition to the war between the Kingdom and the Kingdom of Ternate Tidore, also a war between the white nations of the Spanish with the Portuguese. To finish it all done Treaty of Saragossa in the year 1521.